Hierarchical consensus is a novel approach to blockchain scaling that centers on the concept of subnets which are organized hierarchically and can be spawned on-demand to manage new state.
Subnets are firewalled, meaning that a security violation in a given subnet is limited to that particular subnet and its children, with bounded economic impact on its ancestors.
Subnets periodically commit a proof of their state in their parent through checkpoints, and users are able to determine the level of trust over a subnet according to the security level of the consensus run by the subnet and the proofs provided to light clients.
The protocol also supports atomic transactions across subnets, allowing users to migrate state and orchestrate execution in a subnet with a certain level of trust.
Hierarchical consensus provides a secure and scalable solution for blockchain scaling, allowing for incremental, on-demand blockchain scaling and simplifying deployment of new use cases with clearly isolated security domains.
Key lessons from scaling Kubernetes to 7500 nodes for AI training Training LLM models with billions of parameters requires a large infrastructure and coordination of code across 1000s of machines. Recently OpenAI shared how they scaled Kubernetes cluster to 7500 nodes to address this challenge.
Handy terminal commands 1. To give approval to open an app on MacOS that Apple is not allowing you to. Here is the error you will see: "App name" is damaged and cannot be opened. You should move it to the bin. Command to allow the app to be opened: xattr -d com.apple.quarantine /path/to/app.app IMP: Do this only for trusted apps.