The CAP theorem | Divyansh Rai


Divyansh Rai
Oct 23, 2022

The CAP theorem

The CAP theorem, originally introduced as the CAP principle, can be used to explain some of the competing requirements in a distributed system with replication. It is a tool used to make system designers aware of the trade-offs while designing networked shared-data systems.

The three letters in CAP refer to three desirable properties of distributed systems with replicated data: consistency (among replicated copies), availability (of the system for read and write operations) and partition tolerance (in the face of the nodes in the system being partitioned by a network fault).

The CAP theorem states that it is not possible to guarantee all three of the desirable properties – consistency, availability, and partition tolerance at the same time in a distributed system with data replication.


Consistency means that the nodes will have the same copies of a replicated data item visible for various transactions. A guarantee that every node in a distributed cluster returns the same, most recent and a successful write. Consistency refers to every client having the same view of the data. There are various types of consistency models.


Availability means that each read or write request for a data item will either be processed successfully or will receive a message that the operation cannot be completed. Every non-failing node returns a response for all the read and write requests in a reasonable amount of time.

Partition Tolerence

Partition tolerance means that the system can continue operating even if the network connecting the nodes has a fault that results in two or more partitions, where the nodes in each partition can only communicate among each other.

That means, the system continues to function and upholds its consistency guarantees in spite of network partitions. Network partitions are a fact of life. Distributed systems guaranteeing partition tolerance can gracefully recover from partitions once the partition heals.

The use of the word consistency in CAP and its use in ACID do not refer to the same identical concept.

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